Adipose Tissue: A Metabolic Regulator Potential Implications for the Metabolic Outcome of Subjects Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

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The Review of Diabetic Studies,2007,4,3,134-146.
Published:November 2007
Type:Review Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Arianna Maiorana, Chiara Del Bianco and Stefano Cianfarani

Rina Balducci Center of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, Tor Vergata University, 00133- Rome, Italy.


Adipose tissue is involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, energy balance, inflammation and immune response. Abdominal obesity plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance because of the high lipolytic rate of visceral adipose tissue and its secretion of adipocytokines. Low birth weight subjects are prone to central redistribution of adipose tissue and are at high risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Intrauterine adipogenesis may play a key role in the fetal origin of the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, knowledge of the behavior of visceral adipose tissue-derived stem cells could provide a greater understanding of the metabolic risk related to intrauterine growth retardation, with potential clinical implications for the prevention of long-term metabolic alterations.