Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic cataract (DC) in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients within the Russian Federation. Also, the stage of DR at the time of its identification and the proportion of new cases diagnosed with DR or DC were to be determined. Methods: A random sample of 7,186 adult patients with diabetes was screened for DR and DC using fundoscopy and fundus photography. Levels of HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate were assessed. Results: In diabetic patients, the prevalence of DR and DC was 45.9% and 30.6%, respectively. These complications appeared significantly more frequently in patients with type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of background, preproliferative and proliferative DR among diabetic patients was 28.1%, 8.1%, and 6.7%, respectively. Patients with DR were older, had a longer duration of diabetes, higher HbA1c, elevated plasma total cholesterol, increased triglicerides, and higher systolic BP, compared with patients without DR. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria were more prevalent among patients with DR compared with non-DR patients. Conclusion: The results showed that diabetic retinopathy and cataract are wide-spread complications among diabetic patients in Russia. However, the disease course is more aggressive and accelerated in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those having type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to prevent DR by identifying diabetes and signs of retinopathy at the earliest possible stage of progression for timely and adequate retina laser coagulation or surgical treatment, compensation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and normalization of blood glucose and pressure.