Effects of Different Protein Sources on Plasminogen Inhibitor-1 and Factor VII Coagulant Activity Added to a Fat-Rich Meal in Type 2 Diabetes

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Abstract
The Review of Diabetic Studies,2010,7,3,233-240.
Published:November 2010
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

Lene S. Mortensen, Claus Thomsen, and Kjeld Hermansen

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism MEA, Aarhus University Hospital, Tage-Hansens Gade 2, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Abstract:

Background: Exaggerated postprandial triglyceride concentration is believed to be atherogenic, and to influence the risk of thrombosis. Both elevated plasminogen inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and increased factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) are potential important contributors to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of adding four different protein types (i.e. casein, whey, cod, and gluten) to a fat-rich meal on postprandial responses of PAI-1 and FVIIc in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Twelve type 2 diabetic patients ingested four isocaloric test meals in random order. The test meals contained 100 g of butter and 45 g of carbohydrate in combination with 45 g of casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whemeal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal), respectively. Plasma concentrations of PAI-1 and FVIIc were measured before meal, and at regular intervals for 8-h postprandially. Results: The postprandial PAI-1 concentration decreased significantly by 49% to 56% in response to the four test meals. There were no significant differences between the outcomes from the four test-meals. The FVIIc levels decreased by 8% to 11% after the meals. Again, we observed no significant differences in outcomes between the four protein-enriched meals. Conclusion: The four proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten, added to a fat-rich meal, all decreased the PAI-1 and FVIIc concentrations postprandially in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, postprandial levels of PAI-1 and FVIIc were not acutely influenced by the protein source.