Increased Levels of Total P-Cresylsulphate and Indoxyl Sulphate are Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

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The Review of Diabetic Studies,2010,7,4,275-284.
Published:February 2011
Type:Original Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Cheng-An Chiu1, Li-Fen Lu2, Teng-Hung Yu1, Wei-Chin Hung1, Fu-Mei Chung1, I-Ting Tsai3, Chih-Ying Yang3, Chia-Chang Hsu4, Yung-Chuan Lu5, Chao-Ping Wang1,6, and Yau-Jiunn Lee7

1Division of Cardiology, 2Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Emergency, 4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 5Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, and 6Institute of Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan.

7Lee’s Endocrinologic Clinic, Pingtung 90000, Taiwan


Background: Indoxyl sulphate (IS) and pcresylsulphate (PCS) are uremic toxins with similar proteinbinding, dialytic clearance, and proinflammatory features. Few studies have evaluated the possible associations between these solutes and coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Methods: A hospitalbased case control study was performed. A total of 209 T2D patients were divided into two groups based on the presence/ absence of significant CAD (≥50% luminal reduction). Serum total PCS and IS levels were measured using the Ultra Performance LC System. The relationship between total PCS and IS levels were investigated. Coronary calcium scores and the modified Gensini score were analyzed. Results: Serum total PCS and IS levels were significantly higher in patients with both T2D and significant CAD, than in non-diabetic control subjects and T2D patients without CAD (all p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed independent and significant associations between the two solutes and CAD status. Serum total PCS, IS, and numbers of diseased vessels were elevated in groups with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2 and below. Also, serum total PCS and IS levels were significantly associated with eGFR, coronary calcium scores, Gensini score, adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, and leptin), and total white blood cell count. Conclusion: Serum total PCS and IS levels were elevated in patients with T2D and CAD. These increases were associated with renal function deterioration, inflammation, and coronary atherosclerosis.