In our previous studies, colony-forming progenitor cells isolated from murine embryonic stem cell-derived cultures were differentiated into morphologically distinct insulinexpressing colonies. These colonies were small and not light-reflective when observed by phase-contrast microscopy (therefore termed “Dark” colonies). A single progenitor cell capable of giving rise to a Dark colony was termed a Dark colony-forming unit (CFU-Dark). The goal of the current study was to test whether endogenous pancreas, and its developmentally related liver, harbored CFU-Dark. Here we show that dissociated single cells from liver and pancreas of one-week-old mice give rise to Dark colonies in methylcellulose- based semisolid culture media containing either Matrigel or laminin hydrogel (an artificial extracellular matrix protein). CFU-Dark comprise approximately 0.1% and 0.03% of the postnatal hepatic and pancreatic cells, respectively. Adult liver also contains CFU-Dark, but at a much lower frequency (~0.003%). Microfluidic qRT-PCR, immunostaining, and electron microscopy analyses of individually handpicked colonies reveal the expression of insulin in many, but not all, Dark colonies. Most pancreatic insulin-positive Dark colonies also express glucagon, whereas liver colonies do not. Liver CFU-Dark require Matrigel, but not laminin hydrogel, to become insulin-positive. In contrast, laminin hydrogel is sufficient to support the development of pancreatic Dark colonies that express insulin. Postnatal liver CFU-Dark display a cell surface marker CD133+CD49flowCD107blow phenotype, while pancreatic CFU-Dark are CD133-. Together, these results demonstrate that specific progenitor cells in the postnatal liver and pancreas are capable of developing into insulin-expressing colonies, but they differ in frequency, marker expression, and matrix protein requirements for growth.