In recent years, there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of diabetes, with one in every eleven individuals worldwide suffering from this debilitating disease. As the available treatment options fail to reduce disease progression, novel avenues such as the bioartificial pancreas are being given serious consideration. In the past decade, the research focus has shifted towards the field of tissue engineering, which helps to design biological substitutes for repair and replacement of non-functional or damaged organs. Scaffolds constitute an integral part of tissue engineering; they have been shown to mimic the native extracellular matrix, thereby supporting cell viability and proliferation. This review offers a novel compilation of the recent advances in polymeric scaffolds, which are used for pancreatic tissue engineering. Furthermore, in this article, the design strategies for bioartificial pancreatic constructs and their future applications in cell-based therapy are discussed.