Recent Advances in in-vitro Assays for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

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Abstract
The Review of Diabetics Studies,2020,16,1,13-23.
Published:May 2021
Type:Review Article
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

Nazmina Vhora1,2, Ujjal Naskar2,3, Aishwarya Hiray2,3, Abhijeet S. Kate3, and Alok Jain1,4

1Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-Ahmedabad, India.

2These authors contributed equally.

3Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-Ahmedabad, India. \

4Department of Bioengineering, Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, India.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: A higher rate of attenuation of molecules in drug discovery has enabled pharmaceutical companies to enhance the efficiency of their hit identification and lead optimization. Selection and development of appropriate invitro and in-vivo strategies may improve this process as primary and secondary screening utilize both strategies. In-vivo approaches are too relentless and expensive for assessing hits. Therefore, it has become indispensable to develop and implement suitable in-vitro screening methods to execute the required activities and meet the respective targets. However, the selection of an appropriate in-vitro assay for specific evaluation of cellular activity is no trivial task. It requires thorough investigation of the various parameters involved. AIM: In this review, we aim to discuss in-vitro assays for type 2 diabetes (T2D), which have been utilized extensively by researchers over the last five years, including target-based, non-target based, low-throughput, and high-throughput screening assays. METHODS: The literature search was conducted using databases including Scifinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar to find the significant published articles. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION: The accuracy and relevance of in-vitro assays have a significant impact on the drug discovery process for T2D, especially in assessing the antidiabetic activity of compounds and identifying the site of effect in high-throughput screening. The report reviews the advantages, limitations, quality parameters, and applications of the probed invitro assays, and compares them with one another to enable the selection of the optimal method for any purpose. The information on these assays will accelerate numerous procedures in the drug development process with consistent quality and accuracy.

Keywords:Nil