Prevalence and Specific Manifestations of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Association in a Moroccan Population: A Cross-sectional Study

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Abstract
The Review of Diabetic Studies,2022,18,3,140-145.
Published:September 2022
Type:Research Article
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

Imane Assarrar1, Najoua Messaoudi1, Farel Elilie Mawa Ongoth1, Wahiba Abdellaoui1, Abdessamad Malki1, Siham Rouf1,2, Naima Abda2, Zahi Ismaili3, Hanane Latrech1,2

1Department of Endocrinology-Diabetology and Nutrition, Mohammed Vi University Hospital Center, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Mohammed First, Oujda, Morocco,

2Laboratory of Epidemiology, Clinical Research and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Mohammed First, Oujda, Morocco,

3Department of Hepatology and Gastroentorology, Mohammed Vi University Hospital Center, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Mohammed First, Oujda, Morocco.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is known to increase the risk of degenerative complications of diabetes and the likelihood of developing severe hepatic injuries. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of NAFLD and to describe the characteristics of its association with T2DM. METHODS: This was a descriptive analytical study, involving patients with T2DM with no history of alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, hepatotoxic medications, or other chronic liver diseases. The patients underwent an investigation of NAFLD including abdominal ultrasound, non-invasive biomarkers of liver fibrosis, elastography and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. RESULTS: We collected data from 180 patients with a mean age of 59.3 ± 10.9 years with strong female predominance. The mean duration of diabetes progression was 9.2 ± 7.3 years. Hepatic sonography showed signs of NAFLD in 45.6% of cases. Non-invasive hepatic biomarkers indicated significant fibrosis in 18.3% of cases. Overall, 21% of patients underwent an elastography evaluation, revealing severe fibrosis or cirrhosis in 15.4% of patients. The diagnosis of NASH (Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) was confirmed histologically in 3 patients. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 45.6%. Patients with NAFLD had a statistically significant incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, macrovascular complications, and hypertriglyceridemia (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of NAFLD and T2DM is often found in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome. The presence of NAFLD can be responsible for increased morbidity and important cardiovascular risks in patients with T2DM.