Sarcopenia and Chronic Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract
The Review of Diabetic Studies,2022,18,3,157-165.
Published:September 2022
Type:Review Article
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

Dyah Purnamasari1,2, Erpryta Nurdia Tetrasiwi3, Gracia Jovita Kartiko3, Cindy Astrella3, Khoirul Husam3, Purwita Wijaya Laksmi4

1Division of Endocrinology Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia,

2Metabolic Disorder, Cardiovascular and Aging Research Center, The Indonesian Medical Education and Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia,

3Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia,

4Division of Geriatric, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Abstract:

Sarcopenia, defined as the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength and/or a decrease in physical performance, is classically related to aging. However, chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), may accelerate the development of sarcopenia. Previous studies found strong association between T2DM and sarcopenia. Insulin resistance that exists in T2DM is thought to be the key mediator for impaired physical function and mobility which may lead to sarcopenia. T2DM may cause sarcopenia through the mediation of insulin resistance, inflammation, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, and oxidative stress that may affect muscle mass and strength, protein metabolism, and vascular and mitochondrial dysfunction. On the other hand, loss of muscle in sarcopenia may play a role in the development of T2DM through the decreased production of myokines that play a role in glucose and fat metabolism. This review highlights the findings of existing literature on the relationship between T2DM and sarcopenia which emphasize the pathophysiology, chronic vascular complications, and the course of macrovascular and microvascular complications in T2DM..