Severity and Resolution of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetic Children before and During The COVID-19 Pandemic

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Abstract
The Review of Diabetic Studies,2022,18,4,181-186.
Published:December 2022
Type:Research Article
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

Mohammad Hussain Al-Qahtani1, Aqilah Taleb Al-Qassab2, Fatimah Mousa Bukhamseen1, Danah Zaki Al Ghanim2, Sarah Hassan Alshawaf3, Reem S. AlOmar4, Ebtesam Abdullah Al-Suhaimi5, Bassam Hassan Awary1, Abdullah Abdulsalam Yousef1, Waleed Hamad Albuali1, Haneen Abdulsalam Yousef4, Nouf A. AlShamlan4

1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Pediatrics, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia,

3College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia,

4Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia,

5Department of Biology, College of Science and Institute of Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 31441 Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: To epidemiologically assess the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis at the teaching hospital of the university, Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We enrolled newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus cases among pediatric patients attending the emergency department and outpatient clinics during 2019-2021. The participants’ data were collected from electronic medical records which included patients’ age at diagnosis, sex, nationality, height, weight, year of diagnosis, length of stay, presentation, random blood sugar, blood gas readings, electrolyte panel, and time of resolution of the diabetic ketoacidosis if present. RESULTS: 108 patients were included with an average age of 8.87 ± 4.21 years and 53.70% were females. The demographic characteristics of all diabetic pediatric patients prior to COVID-19 and during COVID-19 were studied and the difference was statistically insignificant. Furthermore, initial pH and HCO3 tests were found to be lower in the moderate to severe diabetic ketoacidosis group (7.17 and 11.2, respectively) compared to the mild group (7.27 and 15.50, respectively) and the differences were statically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 pandemic tended to have a more severe presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis in terms of PH and HCO3.