Assessment and Associations of Nutrients Intake with Glycemic Control in Pediatrics with Type 1 Diabetes


  • Sara Zakarneh Department of Nutrition & Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Jordan. Amman 11942, Jordan
  • Sabika Allehdan Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain. Zallaq, Sakhir Campus 32038 Kingdom of Bahrain
  • Reema Tayyem Department of Human Nutrition, College of Health Science, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.


Type 1 Diabetes, Glycemic Control, Nutrient Intake, Pediatrics


Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic metabolic disease and one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in childhood. Aim: This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the nutrient intake between a group of Jordanian children and adolescents with T1DM who exhibited good glycemic control and those with poor glycemic control. Additionally, the association between nutrient intake and glycemic control was tested. Methods: The study included a sample of 30 children, 65 pre-adolescents, and 45 adolescents, who were selected from patients of King Hussein Medical Center. The participants were divided into two groups based on their glycemic control level: those with good glycemic control (36 participants) and poor glycemic control (71 participants). Valid and reliable questionnaires were used to collect study data. A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted with glycated hemoglobin as the dependent variable and nutrient intake as the independent variable. Results and Conclusions: The poor glycemic control group had significantly higher intake of macronutrients compared to the good glycemic control group, except for trans-fat, soluble fiber, and insoluble fiber, which did not show significant differences between the two groups. The intake of all other vitamins and minerals was significantly higher in the poor glycemic control group. However, the binary logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, daily insulin dose, type of insulin, BMI, and total energy intake, did not reveal any associations between HbA1c levels and nutrient intake. The group with poor glycemic control exhibited higher energy intake and higher intake of vitamins and minerals, except for trans-fat, soluble fiber, and insoluble fiber.